Increasingly, companies are recognising that incorporating environmental and social concerns into business plans and processes is essential for lasting commercial success. There is a growing recognition, too, of the need for environmental and social responsibility. With respect to ‘brown’ issues such as pollution and waste, many companies are making significant progress. It is on ‘green’ issues, however, such as ecosystem management and sustainable use of biological resources, that the responsibilities and indeed the risks and opportunities for businesses, are less well understood. This Handbook introduces the concept of ‘biodiversity’ and explains why and how businesses should address biodiversity. The term ‘businesses’ represents a large variety of actors. It covers such diverse sectors as the extractive industries (mining, oil and gas); the banking and financial sector; biodiversity-based companies such as agriculture, fisheries, forestry and water; tourism; energy; manufacturing to name but a few. Businesses also operate at very different scales: from small artisanal operations, to small and medium-sized companies and global multinationals. The needs of these companies will be very different. Whilst providing a generic vision and framework of business and biodiversity issues, the Handbook recognises this diversity and the need, in the end, to target individualised biodiversity activities.